“Mesopotamian Mythology is the mythology of the people -Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians - who lived in the valley of Mesopotamia.
It seems that the first phase of the Mesopotamian religion was naturalistic -that is, the worship of the forces of life. Man translated these forces of life into the spirits of euphoria and fertility represented by a couple, just like people’s life. Man also created gods / spirits for all things necessary for people’s life, such as the spirits of grain, forest, vines, springs, etc. Their mortal gods died and were born again, just like the seasons whose productive power they represented.
Mesopotamian religion does not have a single origin but responds to the very constitution of the country. The most ancient countries of Sumer (Shinar Valley), which had their autonomy at the time of their formation, annexed the neighboring states one after another, each of which had its local clergy, which had already formed a tradition. The priesthood of each city had established its own theory of the genealogy of its gods as well as a different patron god for protection from the other cities. As the states slowly became more and more integrated, the pantheon of the one came close to the pantheon of the other.
The gods of Sumer then came in contact with the gods of the Semitic invasion -Akkades- and were mixed. So the list of gods doubled. There were double names and tangled generations that nevertheless represented the turmoil that existed in the lives of both peoples. As the years went by, discreet processes had to be made, but the great reform came in the years of the first dynasty of Babylon. The priesthood and the leadership decided to formally unite the two concepts by proposing Marduk (a trivial god until then) as the new official, great god of the state and Babylon. With great mastery, the clergy reduced neither the number nor the value of the earlier gods; simply picked one and raised him above the others without, however, abolishing the old ones. Then the poem of Creation was written which "explains" the predominance of Mardouk and generally proposes another genealogy and mythology, the new and common pretty much for all.”
“In Sumerian mythology, and later in Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu or An was the god of the sky and the constellations, the king of the gods, the spirits and the demons. Anu was considered to have the power to judge those who had committed crimes. He was the father of the Anunnaki. In art, he is usually depicted as a jackal. The basic symbol of Anu is a crown with horns.
Anu was the oldest god in the pantheon of the Sumerian mythology, and he was a Triad along with Enlil, god of the sky, and Enki, god of the waters. Anu is often associated with the city of Uruk, the corresponding biblical Erech, and therefore it is believed to have been his original worship center. The deity of Inanna-Ishtar, also worshiped in Uruk, was often considered to be his companion for this reason.”
Greek triadic deities
Indicatively, we will mention the triple goddess Hecate mentioned in Greek mythology as the queen of the sky, earth and sea, protector of justice, army, hunters, fishermen, flocks with the synergy of her lover Hermes, and protector of newborn babies, hence the name kourotrofos (= child nurturer). In the ancient statues, she was depicted with three faces and in the pots holding two torches. In her honor, people celebrated Hecatea at three way crossroads outside their cities.
Other than the above perceptions were that the brother gods Jupiter or Zeus, Pluto and Poseidon had distributed the kingdoms; Jupiter was the god of the sky, Pluto was the god of the underworld, and Poseidon was the god of the waters. [Justin the Philosopher, Exhortation to the Greeks (730)]
From the above we can see that:
· Polytheism arose from people’s need to interpret natural phenomena, love, wisdom, arts, beauty, etc., by inventing gods of various specialties and responsibilities, donors of good or evil things, supposedly protecting them, their cities, their families, their flocks, their boats, their army, their occupations, etc. (cf. today)
· The clergies always exercised power over any authority, since the emperors supported their perpetuation through the blessings and the oracles of their false prophets.
· The authorities without the support of the clergy could not be respected by the people. (cf. today)
· The gods always complied with the modern needs and policies of the authorities. (cf. today)
· The inventions of the triadic gods were purely arose from polytheism, implying co-governments hierarchically structured in three similar units (three gods), in the way people-kings ruled together.
· Biblical cities such as Erech (Uruk), Nineveh, Babylon and others, were worship centers of triadic imaginary gods.
The sun’s disc and its phases
The natural sun and its three phases, sunrise, culmination and sunset, were the reason for the creation of triadic deities as the New International Encyclopedia informs us.
“The triad became the world’s most widespread number of deity ... The worship of the sun is one of the oldest forms of religion, and the ancient man sometimes distinguished between the rising, the culminating and the setting sun. The Egyptians, for example, separated the solar god into three deities: Horus - the rising sun, Ra - the culminating sun, and Osiris - the setting sun.” (Egyptian deities)
Therefore, the word of the Lord God to Israel through Moses “Hear, O Israel, The Lord our God is one Lord” was made to overturn this mindset of the polytheists; a mindset which the Israelites from Chaldea also had, who, even in the time of Ezekiel’s ministry, worshiped the sun. (Ez. 8:15)
And Josiah the king of Juda “he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun, at the entering in of the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nathanmelech the chamberlain, which was in the suburbs, and burned the chariots of the sun with fire.” (II Kings 23:11)
Hear, Israelites, your own Lord God (unlike the others) is one Lord (not a dyad – dyadic or triad - triadic).
It is worthwhile to observe the prayer of king Jude Hezekiah when he prays to be freed from the Assyrians:
“So now, O LORD our God, save us, please, from his hand, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that you, O LORD, are God alone.” (You are not together with others – that is, you are not dyadic or triadic). (II Ki. 19:19)
Agreement with the New Testament
Our Lord Jesus Christ answering a question from one of the secretaries confirms:
“And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord.” (not dyad - dyadic or triad – triadic). (Mark 12:29)
And the secretary responding also confirms: “And the scribe said to him, Well, Master, you have said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he.” (Mark 12:32)
And elsewhere he said: “And call no man your father on the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.” (Mat. 23:9)
And Paul said: “One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.” (Eph. 4:6)
And James also wrote: “You believe that God is one; you do well. Even the demons believe—and shudder.” (2:19)
So whoever believes that the Lord God is not dyadic or triadic but ONE is right; besides, the demons believe the same thing, and for that reason they are horrified (they shiver from fear). If, hypothetically, God was dyadic or triadic, then the demons would not be horrified.
Therefore, the father of lies has every reason to deceive for centuries by distorting the truth that the Lord God is ONE (and not a triad - triadic or dyad - dyadic).
Concepts of God’s triadicity apart from the above
(a) Cabalistic thoughts
“The Truth is where Cabalists talk about the veils of the Absolute. The Truth was named in a number of ways: some named it God in general, others named it Father - God, Absolute, Unexpressed, Negative Existence, and some even more vaguely "superior power.” The variety of names and adjectives suggests that the totality of God remains incomprehensible to the human intellect. This knowledge - acceptance is ancient. The ancient peoples had realized that behind the one whom they called father - God there was "something" in which their central God remained accountable. Probably one more superior God, unintelligible even by their supreme God, let alone by themselves. That’s why they mention or hint at him but they do not deal with him, they do not try to interpret him because such an interpretation would be arbitrary. The Cabalistic approach does not escape this. It admits its ignorance and speaks of three veils that give a hint to God, but in essence, like all veils, they conceal him. These veils are Negativity, Unlimited, and Unlimited Light.
These three symbolic veils do not stand out and are not distinct from each other. As a Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, He is a "consubstantial and inseparable Triad," others and even the highest insider of this solar system (and others greater than him) cannot enter into their secrets.”
(b) Hermes Trismegistus
“There is one deity in the world”
Hermes is mentioned as an omniscient during the reign of Sostros. The following was written by John Malalas (7th - 8th century):
“Hermes Trismegistus the Egyptian, a man with incredible wisdom, said that the name of the unintelligible and creator has three hypostases in a single deity,” thus giving the triadic of God’s hypostasis, which was then integrated in Orthodoxy.
(c) Holy Trinity
“The Triadic God is described as a Triune Unit which is manifested by actions and works in creation and history. He has three faces, but these three faces are not three separate gods, otherwise Christianity would not be a monotheistic but a tritheistic religion. According to the doctrine, the reason that the triadic God is one, although with three hypostases, is the absence of space and time. Space and time differentiate human hypostases from each other so that different faces to be different people. But because space and time are created (God’s creations), God is not subject to them. So we have the mystery (incomprehensible to people) of the Triune Unit.”
It follows from the above that the acceptance of the Triadic Doctrine (Triune Unit) entails the acceptance of ignorance, the unintelligible, the incomprehensible, the mystery, and the introduction of new mathematical and grammatical rules. If someone has in mind or sees three veils, three angels, or three ships in a row, this doesn’t mean that God is a triad - triadic. Also, the justification that God is triadic, because he is not subject to space and time, leaves the possibility that he is also, tetradic, pentadic, hexadic, etc.
What is the chaff to the wheat? (Jer. 23:28)
The Holy Scripture is profitable for instruction
“All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished to all good works.” (II Tim. 16-17)
The words of the Lord are simple, pure, and comprehensible; they illuminate and they are able to make the man wise, and they are inconsistent with these human triadic, polytheistic perceptions. (cf. Mat. 15:9)
“And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord.” (Mark. 12:29)
“Your word is a lamp to my feet, and a light to my path.” (Ps. 119:105)
“The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple.” (Ps. 19:7)
“Lead me in your truth, and teach me: for you are the God of my salvation; on you do I wait all the day.” (Ps. 25:5)
“And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding, so that we may know him who is true; and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life.” (I John 5:20 Esv2011)
Note: The AKJV quotes by mistake “This is the true God.” (Grk txt: Ούτος = He)
The apostles preached neither a triadic god nor an earthly Jesus, but they preached through the Holy Spirit that Jesus Christ is the true God and eternal life.
The prophecy of Isaiah for the Son
“For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.” (Is. 9:6)
For unto us a child is born
The pronoun “us” is in the dative (giving) case of the person and indicates the person who benefits from something, the person for the sake of whom an action takes place.
“Born” is the past participle of the verb “to bear,” which means that the child, Jesus, was not born by us, but by God who is Spirit, for us.
Similarly the phrase “unto us a son is given.” The Savior was not born by an earthly man so that he can give him to save the world; God who is Spirit and everlasting did that. Otherwise, the Savior would be an earthly man, unable to save, and not the heavenly Lord Jesus Christ. (I Cor. 15:47)
"For this is the way God loved the world: He gave his one and only Son, so that everyone who believes in him will not perish but have eternal life." (John 3:16 NET)
Only - begotten = born alone||without any others||without having any brothers or sisters. [Dictionaries: Scarlatos Vyzantios’ ancient Greek dictionary and Pantazidou Homeric dictionary]
The created and earthly Adam is also called son of God (Luk. 3:23/38). So if the born son of God Jesus had Adam’s earthly nature, he wouldn’t be the only-begotten Son of the Father full of grace and truth. Besides:
“That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.” (Gen. 1:27, Is. 1:2, John 1:14, 3:16)
“Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. But it is not the spiritual that is first but the natural, and then the spiritual. The first man was from the earth, a man of dust; the second man is (The Lord) from heaven.” (I Cor. 15:45-47 Esv2011)
The only-begotten son of God
An only-begotten son of God is defined as He who was born through the Holy Spirit in the womb of Mary, he was given birth by her “where is he that is born king of the Jews?” (Mat. 2:2), and was given the name Jesus by the Lord’s commandment through an angel. The only-begotten son of the Father that was sent to the world, Jesus, had no brothers or sisters born of the Holy Spirit in the womb of a woman, as he was, but:
“But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name: Which were born, not of blood (Grk txt: Bloods) nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.” (John 1:12-13)
“He that believes on him is not condemned: but he that believes not is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.” (John 3:18)
James, Joseph, Simon, Judas and Jesus’ sisters had the same mother but a different father.
“Is not this the carpenter's son? “as was supposed,” is not his mother called Mary? and his brothers, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas? And his sisters, are they not all with us? From where then has this man all these things? And they were offended in him.” (luk. 3:23, Mat. 13:55-57, 12:47-50)
The birth of Jesus
“And the angel said to her, Fear not, Mary: for you have found favor with God. And, behold, you shall conceive in your womb, and bring forth a son, and shall call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give to him the throne of his father David: And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. Then said Mary to the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? And the angel answered and said to her, The Holy Ghost shall come on you, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow you: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born (
of you) shall be called the Son of God.” (Luke 1:30-35 AKJV)
Note: In the verse of Luke 1:35, Grk txt omits (of you). Let’s read the same verse in different Bible Versions:
· “And the angel answering said to her, [The] Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and power of [the] Highest overshadow thee, wherefore the holy thing also which shall be born shall be called Son of God.” (Darby)
· “And the Angel aunswered, & saide vnto her: The holy ghost shall come vpon thee, & the power of the hyest shall ouershadowe thee. Therefore also that holy thyng whiche shalbe borne, shalbe called the sonne of God.” (Bishops)
· “And the angel responding said to her; The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore, indeed, that holy thing that is begotten shall be called the Son of God.” (Godbey)
· “The angel answered her, "the holy spirit shall descend upon thee, and the power of the most high shall over-shadow thee: wherefore thy holy offspring shall be called the son of God.” (Mace)
· “And the angel, answering, said to her, The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of [the] Most High will overshadow you; wherefore also the Holy Thing that is begotten shall be called [the] Son of God.” (Worrell)
The angel did not tell Mary that the holy one who would be born of her would be called the son of God, but he told her that the holy one who would be born in her would be called the son of God.
The same is confirmed to her husband, Joseph, by the angel of the Lord in a dream. In Matthew chapter one and verse twenty we read:
· “And reflecting upon these things, behold a messenger of the Lord appeared to him saying, Joseph, thou son of David, thou shouldest not fear to take to thyself Mary thy wife: for that begotten in her is of the Holy Spirit.” (SLT)
· “And he meditating on these things, behold an angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying; Joseph, son of David, do not fear to receive Mary thy wife; for that which is begotten in her is of the Holy Spirit;” (Godbey)
· “And he having pondered these [things], behold— [an] angel [of the] Lord appeared [to] him in [a] dream saying “Joseph, son [of] David, do not fear to take Mary [as] your wife, for the [child] having been fathered in her is by [the] Holy Spirit.” (DLNT)
· “But while he pondered on these things, behold, an angel of [the] Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, Joseph, son of David, fear not to take to [thee] Mary, thy wife, for that which is begotten in her is of [the] Holy Spirit.” (Darby)
· “Το γαρ εν αυτή γεννηθέν εκ πνεύματος έστιν αγίου.” (Nestle-Aland Grk txt)
This was the reason he was called the only-begotten son of God, because the holy one born in the womb of Mary was from the Holy Spirit not of bloods nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will or power of man or woman.
Continuing, the angel said to Joseph: “And she shall bring forth a son, and you shall call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins.” Joseph believed the angel’s message. “And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name JESUS.” (Mat. 1:21-24)
“And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child, his name was called Jesus, which was so named of the angel before he was conceived in the womb.” (Luke 2:21)
The earthly Mary neither conceived through ordinary means “And Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bore a son, and called his name Seth, saying, For God has raised up to me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew” (Gen. 4:25, LXXE), nor received a fertilized egg (embryo) in order to give birth to a demigod according to the customs of the Olympians in Greek mythology, nor impregnated by herself as Hera did with Hephaestus who was born through parthenogenesis and his father was the dispute and discord according to the ancient doctrines, nor gave birth to an earthly son, but she conceived miraculously and gave birth to the heavenly Jesus who was born by his Father the eternal Holy Spirit, within her; and everyone born has a beginning.
“And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.” (Col. 1:18)
“And to the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things said the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God; (The new spiritual creation).” (Rev. 3:14)
“Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new.” (II Cor. 5:17)
“For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision avails any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature.” (Gal. 6:15)
The first-century church of God “which he obtained with his own blood” recognized Jesus as the only true God and called him “Emmanuel,” that is, “God is with us.” (Acts 20:28, Ι John 5:20, Isaiah 7:14, 8:8)
This was the reason why the Jews wanted to kill him, because they thought of Jesus as the son of Joseph and Mary and did not believe that he was the only-begotten of the Holy Spirit.
“Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God.” (John 5:18)
“The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone you not; but for blasphemy; and because that you, being a man, make yourself God.” (John 10:33)
The opposed Jews did not believe in the teaching of the apostles
“For let this be in mind among you, which also in Christ Jesus; Who, being in the form (image) of God, thought not robbery to be equal to God. But emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, born in the likeness of men: And found in fashion as man, he humbled himself, being obedient until death, and the death of the cross.” (Philip. 2:5-8 SLT)
Here, Paul is not talking about a pre-existing Son, but about the only-begotten of the Father (the Holy Spirit), the one who was born by Mary, who was given the name Jesus, the one who was already resurrected when Paul wrote the letters.
“For the impossibility of the law, in that it was weak by the flesh, God having sent his own Son in the likeness of the flesh of sin, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh: That the justification of the law be filled up in us, not walking according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit.” (Rom. 8:3-4)
Jesus was a Heavenly Man, from Heaven, “the image of the invisible God,” and not from the earth, not earthly. (Col. 1:15)
“Thus it is written, The first man Adam became a living being; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit.” (I Cor. 15:45)
What Jesus who was born by Mary testifies about himself
“Jesus said to them, If God were your father ye would have loved me, for I came forth from God and am come [from him] ; for neither am I come of myself, but he has sent me.” (John 8:42 Darby)
“No one has ascended into heaven except he who descended from heaven, the Son of Man.” (John 3:13)
For I came down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him that sent me.” (John 6:38)
“I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.” (John 6:51)
“And Jesus said to them, You are from beneath (from earth); I am from above (from heaven): you are of this world; I am not of this world.” (John 8:23)
“The bread that I will give is my flesh (Grk: Sarx 4561).” The flesh / body of Jesus was from heaven (the manna in the wilderness was also from heaven), and when Paul, apostle of Jesus, wrote about the mystery of piety “God was manifested in the flesh” he did not disagree with Jesus neither he preached an earthly savior.
Paul wrote: “For the impossibility of the law, in that it was weak by the flesh, God having sent his own Son in the likeness of the flesh of sin, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh.” (Rom. 8:3)
An earthly man could never assert for himself similar testimonies.
Actions of Jesus that were impossible to be carried out by an earthly man
· “For he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.” (Mat. 7:29)
· “Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered to, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.” (Mat. 20:28)
· “For whoever will save his life shall lose it: but whoever will lose his life for my sake, the same shall save it.” (Luk. 9:24)
· “And when he saw their faith, he said to him, Man, your sins are forgiven you.” (Luk. 5:20)
· “Therefore does my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again. No man takes it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father.” (John 10:17-18)
· Meanwhile the disciples were urging him, saying, “Rabbi, eat.” But he said to them, “I have food to eat that you do not know about.” (John 4:31-32)
· “But whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life.” (John 4:14)
· “And after six days Jesus takes Peter, James, and John his brother, and brings them up into an high mountain apart, And was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light.” (Mat. 17:1-2)
· “And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another, What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?” (Mark. 4:14)
Jesus was not an angel
“For to which of the angels said he at any time, You are my Son, this day have I begotten you? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?” (Heb. 1:5)
“Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit has not flesh and bones, as you see me have.” (Luk. 24:39)
The body of Jesus, the only-begotten son of God, was special, separate, unique, it was made in the likeness of man
“But made himself of no reputation, (Grk: emptied himself) and took on him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient to death, even the death of the cross.” (Philip. 2:7-8)
The blood of Jesus
The bones of the heavenly man Jesus, produced a unique divine blood
“Whom God has set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God;” (Rom. 3:25)
“In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;” (Eph. 1:7)
“Take heed therefore to yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost has made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he has purchased with his own blood.” (Acts 20:28)
“How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?” (Heb. 9:14)
What the apostles said and wrote
“For in him the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily, and you have been filled in him, who is the head of all rule and authority.” (Col. 2:9-10)
“For it pleased the Father that in him should all fullness dwell; And, having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things to himself; by him, I say, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven.” (Col. 1:19-20)
“For not all flesh is the same, but there is one kind for humans, another for animals, another for birds, and another for fish. There are heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is of one kind, and the glory of the earthly is of another.” (I Cor. 15:39-40)
“It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being (soul) the last Adam became a life-giving spirit.” (I Cor. 15:44-45)
The apostles were sent neither to preach Homer or Middle Platonism, nor to preach a demigod (son of a god and a mortal woman). There were many such gods both in the Greek pantheon and in the pantheon of other tribes. But they preached Jesus Christ as the living God and true savior of the world. (I John 5:20, Rom. 9:5, Titus 2:13, Rev. 1:8)
(a) John the Baptist
John the Baptist said that Jesus was above all because He had come from heaven.
“He must increase, but I must decrease. He who comes from above is above all. He who is of the earth belongs to the earth and speaks in an earthly way. He who comes from heaven is above all. He bears witness to what he has seen and heard, yet no one receives his testimony. Whoever receives his testimony sets his seal to this, that God is true.” (John 3:30-33)
And Jesus said that among those born of women there has not risen anyone greater than John the Baptist.
“Truly, I say to you, among those born of women there has arisen no one greater than John the Baptist. Yet the one who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he.” (Mat. 11:11)
If Jesus was a man according to the perception of the disagreeing Jews he wouldn't have said that John was the greatest among those born of women, but he would have said, “I am the greatest among those born of women.”
(b) The teaching of the Apostle Paul about resurrection
So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption: It is sown in dishonor; it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness; it is raised in power: It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body. And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul (natural body); the last Adam was made a quickening (live-giving) spirit (spiritual body). However, that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and afterward that which is spiritual. The first man is of the earth, earthy; the second man is the Lord from heaven. As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.” (I Cor. 15:42-49)
The distinction between the earthly and the heavenly is evident, the earthly man is seeded with human sperm and is born as a psychic body "in wear, in unrighteousness, in sickness," and while living on earth, he is spiritually dead because of sin. But the first earthly Adam “was a type of the one who was to come,” that is, a pattern of the spiritual man Jesus. (Rom. 5:14)
The heavenly man Jesus Christ “became a Spirit that gives life” in order to rebirth, give life, resurrect, and let the spiritually dead man “have life, and have it to the full.” (John 10:10)
“But Jesus said to him, Follow me; and let the dead bury their dead.” (Mat. 8:22)
“And as they were speaking to the people, the priests and the captain of the temple and the Sadducees came upon them, greatly annoyed because they were teaching the people and proclaiming in Jesus the resurrection from the dead.” (Acts 4:1-2)
“Even when we were dead in our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ— by grace you have been saved— and raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus.” (Eph. 2:5-6)
“In him also you were circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ, having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the powerful working of God, who raised him from the dead. And you, who were dead in your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, God made alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses.” (Col. 2:11-13)
“For this my son was dead and has come to life, was lost and has been found. And they began to make merry.” (Luk. 15:24, Darby)
“Do not present your members to sin as instruments for unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God as those who have been brought from death to life, and your members to God as instruments for righteousness.” (Rom. 6:13)
This work of salvation -the remission of sins and the resurrection of the spiritually dead earthly man- would have been impossible if Jesus had a human, earthly, perishable nature.
Jesus Christ is the word of life that became flesh; he is the truth, and the life, and the imperishable seed that gives eternal life.
James informs the Jewish Christians: “Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures.” (James to Hebrews 1:18) (Beget = to create children, to give birth)
And Peter in his first letter to the Hebrews said: “Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which lives and stays for ever.” (I Peter to the Hebrews 1:23)
The teaching of the first church about the Word of life
“To me, though I am the very least of all the saints, this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ, and to bring to light for everyone what is the plan of the mystery hidden for ages in God who created all things.” (Eph. 3:8 Esv2011)
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was
with towards God, and the Word was God God was the Word. He was in the beginning with towards God. All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.” (John 1:1-5 Esv2011)
Note: Grk txt omits, with, instead is “προς τον” (Nestle-Aland). Προς with accusative (τον), to, toward, denoting direction toward a thing (Liddell Scott)
“That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we looked upon and have touched with our hands, concerning the word of life the life was made manifest, and we have seen it, and testify to it and proclaim to you the eternal life, which was
with towards Father and was made manifest to us.” (I John 1:1-2)
Compare: “And the Word became flesh,” “God was manifest in the flesh,” “life was made manifest.” (John 1:14, I Tim. 1:16, I John 1:2)
The Jewish writer did not write about a different pre-existing god-word, but, he wrote about the word that was the eternal life, the life of the eternal God / the Father, which was manifest.
Jesus addressing the Jews said to them: “For as the Father has life in himself; so has he given to the Son to have life in himself;” (John 5:26)
“Jesus said to her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believes in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: And whoever lives and believes in me shall never die. Believe you this?” (John 11:25-26)
Nor did the Jewish writer abolish the scriptures that said:
“As concerning therefore the eating of those things that are offered in sacrifice to idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is none other God but one.” (I Cor. 8:4)
“For ever, O LORD, your word is settled in heaven.” (Ps. 119:89)
“And God said to Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shall you say to the children of Israel, I AM has sent me to you.” (Ex. 3:14)
“I am the LORD: that is my name: and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images.” (Is. 42:8, 48:11)
“Thus said the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.” (Is. 44:6)
“Thus said the LORD, your redeemer, and he that formed you from the womb, I am the LORD that makes all things; that stretches forth the heavens alone; that spreads abroad the earth by myself;” (Is. 44:24)
“You are my witnesses, said the LORD, and my servant whom I have chosen: that you may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is no savior.” (Is. 43:10-11)
“Listen to me, O Jacob and Israel, my called; I am he; I am the first, I also am the last.” (Is. 48:12)
The God-breathed scriptures and the philosophy of people
The apostles were not teachers of heresy “denying the only Master and Lord, Jesus Crist” and they knew the scriptures that said:
“For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He takes the wise in their own craftiness. And again, The Lord knows the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain.” (I Cor. 3:19-20)
“For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent. Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?” (I Cor. 1:19-20)
“For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.” (I Cor. 1:21)
The writers of the New Testament letters were not in agreement with the polytheistic gentiles, who, according to the Greek theological thinking, believed in a hierarchical union of member gods where the high god does not create but gives birth to God the Word who is the cause of creation. The apostles never wrote: Brothers, just like Zeus gave birth to his son Hermes and sent him to difficult and critical missions making him the intermediary between the gods and the people, so did ours, the one god. The pagans believed these fables.
“And when the people saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying in the speech of Lycaonia, The gods are come down to us in the likeness of men. And they called Barnabas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius, because he was the chief speaker.” (Acts 14:11-12)
Nor did they perform a philosophical analysis by accepting the sophistries about the "Word" of Middle Platonism in order to spread the latest Platonic trends mixed with the teaching of Jesus. This was achieved by the fanatical Hellenistic Jewish philosopher Philo who lived in Alexandria, Egypt -whose library attracted all the philosophical trends- and considered the “Word” to be the “idea of ideas,” “the firstborn son of the uncreated Father” and “second, inferior god.” He belonged to the so-called apologists, who adopted the Philonian Word of Middle Platonism, which, along with Plotinus, evolved into Neoplatonism, which post-evolved into “patristic theology”. The apologists compromised the comparative Greek theology with Christianity, teaching, like Justin, that:
“And the first power after God the Father and Lord of all is the Word, who is also the Son; and of Him we will, in what follows, relate how He took flesh and became man.” (Justin Philosopher A’ Apology chap. 32,10)
“What sober-minded man, then, will not acknowledge that we are not atheists, worshipping as we do the Maker of this universe, and declaring, as we have been taught .… Our teacher of these things is Jesus Christ, who also was born for this purpose, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judæa, in the times of Tiberius Cæsar; and that we reasonably worship Him, having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, we will prove.” (Justin Philosopher A’ Apology chap. 13)
"I shall attempt to persuade you, since you have understood the Scriptures,[of the truth] of what I say, that there is, and that there is said to be, another God and Lord subject to the Maker of all things; who is also called an Angel, because He announces to men whatsoever the Maker of all things--above whom there is no other God--wishes to announce to them." (Justin Philosopher Dialogue with Tryfo chap. 56)
Eventually, this mixing of human earthly wisdom with the wisdom that is from above gave birth to theological battles and great heresies in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th centuries.
The formers of the new Byzantine-type Christianity were wounded by the Philonian love to Plato, damaging the basic idea of the bible that God is love, and that He is One, with the sad effect of the Hellenization of the monotheistic early Christianity, its nationalization and protection from the Roman empire, its armed enforcement, the discovery of the incomprehensible triune unit with the prevalence of the ontological equality between the Father and the Son, and the introduction of new theological terms, non-existent in the sacred biblical texts, such as: consubstantial – undivided – inseparable – two natures – first, second, third person – holy trinity, have mercy on us – blessed virgin – ever virgin – coeternal – co-everlasting – incarnation [incarnate = to give physical substance to someone// reincarnate// metempsychose (Stamatakos Grk dictionary)] etc.
The Word became flesh
“And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth.” (John 1:14)
Note: It doesn't say "the Word took flesh," as the apologists and philosophers were saying, but it says: "the Word became flesh."
Grammar says that the predicate (flesh) through the middle voice linking verb (became) attributes a property to the subject (the word).
That is, the flesh / man Jesus became a property (an attribute) of the word of life “I am the resurrection and the life.” Mary’s biological participation is absent, otherwise it would say [the word was made flesh by Mary].
The body of Jesus was the temple of God. When the Jews asked for a sign and Jesus said, "Destroy this temple, and I will raise it again in three days," the Jews thought that he was telling them about the temple of Solomon. “But he spoke of the temple of his body.” (John 2:19-21)
The heavenly body of Christ is the true tent
“But when Christ appeared as a high priest of the good things that have come, then through the greater and more perfect tent ( not made with hands, that is, not of this creation).” (Heb. 9:11)
In the Old Testament, God filled with his presence the inside of the tent of the tabernacle, and from there, between the two cherubs on the mercy seat, he spoke to Moses within the people’s earshot. (Ex. 25:22)
In the New Testament, the temple of the body of the Son of God is the true tent “not made with hands, that is, not of this creation,” where the whole fullness of deity dwells, and through this body, the one God the Father speaks and acts. (cf. Rev. 21:22)
“Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the holy places by the blood of Jesus, by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.” (Heb. 10:19-22)
In this passage we see the prominent spiritual function of the heavenly flesh of Jesus, which allows us to enter in Holy Spirit into the true holies in heaven.
And we beheld His glory
“And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of the LORD has spoken.” (Is. 40:5)
“That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked on, and our hands have handled, of the Word of life; For the life was manifested, and we have seen it, and bear witness, and show to you that eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested to us;” (I John 1:1-2)
“God was manifest in the flesh.” (I Tim. 3:16)
Was manifest = he made himself visible.
In the flesh = dative. Here we have the dative of the instrument or means (manner), through which, with what, e.g.
He tells us in what way he was manifest. “The word was made flesh.” So God manifested himself in the flesh - (heavenly) body. (John 6: 51)
Glory as the only-begotten from the father
The only-begotten son is: “He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature …” (Heb. 1:3)
So, the only-begotten son was the radiance of the glory of the Father and the imprint of his hypostasis (one hypostasis), he was the living image (portrayal - imprint) of the invisible Father, the self of God who is Spirit, the one the Father commanded us to call Jesus (Savior). “For him hath God the Father sealed.” (John 6:27)
Whoever saw the body of Jesus, saw the Father
“Philip said to him, Lord, show us the Father, and it suffises us. Jesus said to him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet have you not known me, Philip? he that has seen me has seen the Father; and how say you then, Show us the Father? Believe you not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I speak to you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwells in me, he does the works.” (John 14:8-10)
“And he said to them, You are from beneath; I am from above: you are of this world; I am not of this world. I said therefore to you, that you shall die in your sins: for if you believe not that I am he, you shall die in your sins.” (John 8:23-24)
“John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace be to you, and peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;” (Rev. 1:4)
“I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, said the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.” (Rev. 1:8)
The fullness of Jesus
The fullness of the son was his heavenly Father. “For in him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily.” (Col. 2:9)
“And of his fullness have all we received, and grace for grace.” (John 1:16)
“To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, not imputing their trespasses to them; and has committed to us the word of reconciliation.” (II Cor. 5:19)
Remission of sins, salvation, cure, consolation, liberation from passions, grace, mercy, love, faith, Holy Spirit, everything was and is given by the one God, the Father, the fullness of Jesus, who was and is his body. (cf. Col. 1:19-22)
That is what the apostles were taught by the Lord “Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom.” (II Cor. 3:17)
Testimonies of Jesus and the apostles
“Jesus said to him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet have you not known me, Philip? he that has seen me has seen the Father.” (John 14:9)
“And whatever you shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son.” (John 14:13)
“But Jesus answered them, My Father works till now, and I work. Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God.” (John 5:17-18)
“Then answered Jesus and said to them, Truly, truly, I say to you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he sees the Father do: for what things soever he does, these also does the Son likewise.” (John (5:19)
“For as the Father raises up the dead, and vivifies them; even so the Son vivifies whom he will. For the Father judges no man, but has committed all judgment to the Son, That all men should honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He that honors not the Son honors not the Father which has sent him.” (John 5:21-23)
“For as the Father has life in himself; so has he given to the Son to have life in himself;” (John 5:26)
“For the bread of God is he which comes down from heaven, and gives life to the world.” (John 6:33)
“Then said they to him, Where is your Father? Jesus answered, You neither know me, nor my Father: if you had known me, you should have known my Father also.” (John 8:19)
“All things are delivered to me of my Father: and no man knows who the Son is, but the Father; and who the Father is, but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him.” (Luke 10:22)
“And he said to them, You are from beneath; I am from above: you are of this world; I am not of this world.” (John 8:23)
“Then said they to him, Who are you? And Jesus said to them, Even the same that I said to you from the beginning. I have many things to say and to judge of you: but he that sent me is true; and I speak to the world those things which I have heard of him. They understood not that he spoke to them of the Father.” (John 8:25-27)
The Jews could not accept what Jesus said to them, they were resting in their religion, their biological origins, their customs and practices, their feasts, their temple, and their worship according to their traditions, and “They understood not that he spake to them of the Father.”
“But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name: Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.” (John 1:12-13)
The true servants of Christ and housekeepers of the mysteries of God wrote to those who “received” him, saying:
“For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, has shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.” (II Cor. 4:6)
“And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding, so that we may know him who is true; and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life. Little children, keep yourselves from idols.” (I John 5:20)